Thursday, February 28, 2013
For decades, archaeologists have struggled with understanding the emergence of a distinct South American civilization during the Late Archaic period (3000-1800 B.C.) in Peru. One of the persistent questions has been the role of agriculture and particularly corn (maize) in the evolution of complex, centralized societies. Up until now, the prevailing theory was that marine resources, not agriculture and corn, provided the economic engine behind the development of civilization in the Andean region of Peru.
Now, breakthrough research led by Field Museum curator Dr. Jonathan Haas is providing new resolution to the issue by looking at microscopic evidence found in soil, on stone tools, and in coprolites from ancient sites and dated with over 200 Carbon-14 dates.
After years of study, Haas and his colleagues have concluded that during the Late Archaic, maize (Zea mays, or corn) was indeed a primary component in the diet of people living in the Norte Chico region of Peru, an area of remarkable cultural florescence in 3rd millennium B.C. Their research is the subject of a paper that appears in the online Early Edition issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) the week of February 25, 2013..
"This new body of evidence demonstrates quite clearly that the very earliest emergence of civilization in South America was indeed based on agriculture as in the other great civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, and China," said Haas.
Haas and his team focused on sites in the desert valleys of Pativilca and Fortaleza north of Lima where broad botanical evidence pointed to the extensive production, processing and consumption of maize between 3000 and 1800 B.C. They studied a total of 13 sites. The two most extensively studied sites were Caballete, about six miles inland from the Pacific Ocean and consisting of six large platform mounds arranged in a "U" shape, and the site of Huaricanga, about 14 miles inland and consisting one very large mound and several much smaller mounds on either side.
The scientists targeted several areas at the sites including residences, trash pits, ceremonial rooms, and campsites. A total of 212 radiocarbon dates were obtained in the course of all the excavations.
Macroscopic remains of maize (kernels, leaves, stalks, and cobs) were rare.
However, the team looked deeper and found an abundance of microscopic evidence of maize in various forms in the excavations. One of the clearest markers was the abundance of maize pollen in the prehistoric soil samples. While maize is grown in the area today, they were able to rule out modern day contamination because modern maize pollen grains are larger and turn dark red when stain is applied. Also, modern soil samples consistently contain pollen from the Australian Pine (Casuarinaceae Casuarina), a plant which is an invasive species from Australia never found in prehistoric samples.
A majority of the soil samples analyzed came from trash pits associated with residential architecture. Other samples were taken from places such as room floors and construction debris. Of the 126 soil samples (not counting stone tools and coprolites) analyzed, 61 contained Z. mays pollen. (In fact, Z. mays was the second most common pollen found in the total of all samples, behind only pollen from cattails which have wind-pollinated flowers.) This is consistent with the percentage of maize pollen found in pollen analyses from sites in other parts of the world where maize is a major crop and constitutes the primary source of calories in the diet.
Haas and his colleagues also analyzed residues on stone tools used for cutting, scraping, pounding, and grinding. The tools were examined for evidence of plant residues, particularly starch grains and phytoliths (plant silica bodies). Of the 14 stone tools analyzed, 11 had maize starch grains on the working surfaces and two had maize phytoliths.
Coprolites (preserved fecal material) provide the best direct evidence of prehistoric diet. Among 62 coprolites analyzed of all types -- 34 human, 16 domesticated dog, and others from various animals -- 43 (or 69 percent) contained maize starch grains, phytoliths, or other remains. Of the 34 human coprolites, 23 (or 68 percent) contained evidence of maize. (The second most common grain in humans came from sweet potatoes.) Coprolites also showed that fish, mostly anchovies, did provide the primary protein in the diet, but not the calories.
The researchers concluded that the prevalence of maize in multiple contexts and in multiple sites indicates this domesticated food crop was grown widely in the area and constituted a major portion of the local diet, and it was not used just on ceremonial occasions. The research ultimately confirms the importance of agriculture in providing a strong economic base for the rise of complex, centralized societies in the emergence of the world's civilizations.
Sunday, February 10, 2013
The above is The Last Supper, ca. 1520, by Giampietrino (Giovanni Pietro Rizzoli), thought to be a student of Leonardo da Vinci in Milan, oil on canvas, 770 x 298 cm (26.26 x 9.78 ft), currently in the collection of The Royal Academy of Arts, London (purchased in 1821, usually on exhibit at Magdalen College, Oxford). This is acknowledged to be an accurate, full-scale copy, so much so that it was the main source for the twenty-year restoration of the original (1978-1998). It includes several lost details such as Christ's feet, the transparent glass decanters on the table, and the floral motifs of the tapestries that decorate the room's interior.
The person to Jesus' right (left in the painting) seems to me to be clearly a woman - look at her hair, features, tilt of her head, her bodice (different from all the others, hands and feet (also different.)
Also why are all the men on her side of the table looking at her? They don’t seem very happy, do they? She seems to be a picture of modesty. What announcement has upset them all?
Tuesday, February 5, 2013
UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER REVEALS:
- Wealth of evidence, including radiocarbon dating, radiological evidence, DNA and bone analysis and archaeological results, confirms identity of last Plantagenet king who died over 500 years ago
- DNA from skeleton matches TWO of Richard III's maternal line relatives. Leicester genealogist verifies living relatives of Richard III's family
- Individual likely to have been killed by one of two fatal injuries to the skull – one possibly from a sword and one possibly from a halberd
- 10 wounds discovered on skeleton - Richard III killed by trauma to the back of the head. Part of the skull sliced off
- Radiocarbon dating reveals individual had a high protein diet – including significant amounts of seafood – meaning he was likely to be of high status
- Radiocarbon dating reveals individual died in the second half of the 15th or in the early 16th century – consistent with Richard's death in 1485
- Skeleton reveals severe scoliosis – onset believed to have occurred at the time of puberty
- Although around 5 feet 8 inches tall (1.72m), condition meant King Richard III would have stood significantly shorter and his right shoulder may have been higher than the left
- Feet were truncated at an unknown point in the past, but a significant time after the burial
- Corpse was subjected to 'humiliation injuries' –including a sword through the right buttock
- Individual had unusually slender, almost feminine, build for a man – in keeping with contemporaneous accounts
- No evidence for 'withered arm' –as portrayed by Shakespeare – found
- Possibility that the individual's hands were tied
- Grave was hastily dug, was not big enough and there was no shroud or coffin
The University of Leicester has discovered the remains of King Richard III.
At a specially convened media conference, experts from across the University unanimously identified the remains discovered in Leicester city centre as being those of the last Plantagenet king who died in 1485.
Rigorous scientific investigations confirmed the strong circumstantial evidence that the skeleton found at the site of the Grey Friars church in Leicester was indeed that of King Richard III.
University of Leicester researchers have revealed a wealth of evidence – including DNA analysis, radiocarbon dating and skeletal examination - proving the identity of the skeleton.
University of Leicester archaeologists co-director Richard Buckley, the lead archaeologist on the Search for Richard III, said: "It is the academic conclusion of the University of Leicester that the individual exhumed at Grey Friars in August 2012 is indeed King Richard III, the last Plantagenet King of England.
"It has been an honour and privilege for all of us to be at the centre of an academic project that has had such phenomenal global interest and mass public appeal. Rarely have the conclusions of academic research been so eagerly awaited."
University of Leicester geneticist Dr Turi King confirmed that DNA from the skeleton matches that of two of Richard III's family descendants – Canadian-born furniture maker Michael Ibsen and a second person who wishes to remain anonymous.
Dr King, of the University's Department of Genetics, said: "The DNA sequence obtained from the Grey Friars skeletal remains was compared with the two maternal line relatives of Richard III. We were very excited to find that there is a DNA match between the maternal DNA from the family of Richard the Third and the skeletal remains we found at the Grey Friars dig."
Skeletal analysis carried out by University of Leicester osteoarchaeologist Dr Jo Appleby showed that the individual was male and in his late 20s to late 30s. Richard III was 32 when he was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485.
The individual had a slender physique and severe scoliosis – a curvature of the spine – possibly with one shoulder visibly higher than the other. This is consistent with descriptions of Richard III's appearance from the time.
Trauma to the skeleton indicates the individual died after one of two significant wounds to the back of the skull – possibly caused by a sword and a halberd.
This is consistent with contemporary accounts of Richard being killed after receiving a blow to the back of his head.
The skeleton also showed a number of non-fatal injuries to the head, rib and pelvis – believed to have been caused by a wound through the right buttock – which may have been caused by 'humiliation injuries' after death.
Dr Appleby's analysis is backed up by radiological evidence carried out by University of Leicester forensic pathologists and forensic engineering experts.
Dr Appleby, of the University's School of Archaeology and Ancient History, said: "The skeleton has a number of unusual features: its slender build, the scoliosis and the battle-related trauma. All of these are highly consistent with the information that we have about Richard III in life and about the circumstances of his death. Taken as a whole, the skeletal evidence provides a highly convincing case for identification as Richard III."
The verdict also drew from circumstantial evidence at the dig site, radiocarbon dating, genealogical evidence and comparison with historical sources.
The University of Leicester, in association with Leicester City Council and the Richard III Society, led the Search for Richard III.
The Search for Richard III is also the subject of a Channel 4 documentary made by Darlow Smithson Productions.
The documentary makers had exclusive access to the search team during the archaeological dig and during the scientific tests to determine the skeleton's identity.
Their documentary, Richard III: King in the Car Park, can be seen at 9pm on Channel 4 today (Monday, February 4).
More information about Channel 4's Richard III: King in the Car Park documentary can be found at: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/richard-iii-the-king-in-the-car-park/episode-guide/series-1/episode-1
The public can find more information about the University of Leicester's Search for Richard III at: www.le.ac.uk/richardiii
Evidence from DNA analysis
University of Leicester geneticist Dr Turi King found a match between DNA from the skeleton and two direct descendents of Richard III on the female line.
The modern DNA work was carried out by Dr Turi King at the University of Leicester. Dr Turi King carried out the ancient DNA analysis in dedicated ancient DNA facilities at the University of York, in the lab of Professor Michael Hofreiter with Gloria Gonzales Fortes, and travelled to the Université Paul Sabatier in Toulouse to work with Dr Patricia Balaresque and Laure Tonasso and where the work was independently verified.
This was checked with mitochondrial DNA from the two female-line descendents - Canadian-born furniture maker Michael Ibsen and a second person who wishes to remain anonymous.
Their link with Richard III was verified by a genealogical study led by University Pro-Vice-Chancellor Professor Kevin Schürer.
Dr Turi King said: "The aim of our part of the project is to use DNA evidence to help identify the skeletal remains found at the Grey Friars site: does the DNA analysis corroborate the archaeological evidence and point to these being the remains of Richard III?
"The first step was to determine if the two female line relatives – Michael Ibsen and a second person who wishes to remain anonymous - shared the same mitochondrial DNA sequences. The analysis showed that these two individuals shared the same relatively rare mitochondrial DNA sequence.
"We then had to see if it was even possible to retrieve ancient DNA from the Grey Friars skeleton. DNA breaks down over time and how quickly this happens is very dependent on the burial conditions. Therefore, we were extremely pleased to find that we could obtain a DNA sample from the skeletal remains.
"Finally, the DNA sequence obtained from the Grey Friars skeletal remains was compared with the two maternal line relatives of Richard III. We were very excited to find that there is a DNA match between the maternal DNA from the family of Richard the Third and the skeletal remains we found at the Grey Friars dig.
"Like a forensic case, the DNA evidence must be assessed alongside the other evidence. Here the results of the archaeological and osteological analysis, combined with the genealogical and genetic evidence make for a strong and compelling case that these are indeed the remains of Richard III.
In addition, the researchers are hoping to compare the skeleton's DNA with descendents down the male line.
To do this, they will need to obtain Y chromosome data – the male sex chromosome. Preliminary analysis of the DNA confirmed that these are indeed the remains of a male and so researchers are hopeful that they will be able to analyse the Y chromosome.
"A number of the men identified as descendents of Edward III through his son John of Gaunt - who would both have shared the same Y chromosome as Richard III - have been kind enough to donate their DNA to our project.
"The analysis of their DNA is complete and I now have a consensus Y chromosome type of these individuals.
"As such, this side of the work is in its early stages, and may indeed prove inconclusive, but we are hopeful that, if it's possible to conduct a full analysis, it will provide a complete picture on both the male and female lines."
Evidence from bone analysis
Dr Jo Appleby, an osteoarchaeologist based at the University's School of Archaeology and Ancient History, conducted an extensive examination of the Grey Friars skeleton.
Her main findings were:
- The individual was male, in his late 20s to late 30s, and had gracile or feminine build
- He had severe scoliosis - perhaps with an onset at the time of puberty
- Although around 5feet 8 inches tall (1.61m), his disability meant he would have stood up to one foot (0.3m) shorter and his right shoulder would be higher than the left
- Trauma to the skeleton suggests death following a significant blow to the rear of the skull
- Other injuries may have occurred at around the time of death. These include several injuries to the head, one to the rib and one to the pelvis – thought to have been caused by a wound through the right buttock.
- Evidence suggests significant post-mortem mutilation – 'insult wounds' although the face may have been deliberately left intact to ensure he was still recognisable
Dr Appleby said: "Taken as a whole, the skeletal evidence provides a highly convincing case for identification as Richard III.
"The analysis of the skeleton proved that it was an adult male, but with an unusually slender, almost feminine, build for a man. This is in keeping with historical sources which describe Richard as being of very slender build. There is, however, no indication that he had a withered arm – both arms were of a similar size and both were used normally during life.
"The skeleton is that of an individual aged between the late twenties and late thirties. We know that Richard III was 32 when he died, and this is entirely consistent with the Grey Friars skeleton.
"Without the spinal abnormality, the Grey Friars skeleton would have stood roughly 5' 8" (1.72m) high. This would have been above average height for a medieval male; however, the curve in the spine would have taken a significant amount off his apparent height when standing.
"This individual was not born with scoliosis, but it developed after the age of ten. The condition would have put additional strain on the heart and lungs, and it may have caused pain, but we cannot be specific about this.
"Our work has shown that a large wound to the base of the skull at the back represents a 'slice' cut off the skull by a bladed weapon. We cannot say for certain exactly what weapon caused this injury, but it is consistent with something similar to a halberd.
"A smaller injury, also on the base of the skull, was caused by a bladed weapon which penetrated through to the inner surface of the skull opposite the entry point, a distance of 10.5 cm. Both of these injuries would have caused almost instant loss of consciousness, and death would have followed quickly afterwards.
"A further three wounds have been identified on the outer surface of the vault of the skull. In addition to these, there is a small rectangular injury on the cheekbone. Finally on the skull, there is a cut mark on the lower jaw, caused by a bladed weapon, consistent with a knife or dagger. We speculate that the helmet had been lost by this stage in the battle.
"This has led us to speculate that they may reflect attacks on the body after death, although we cannot confirm this directly from the bones. Examples of such 'humiliation injuries' are well known from the historical and forensic literature, and historical sources have suggested that Richard's body was mistreated after the battle.
"In addition, there is a cut mark on a rib which did not penetrate the ribcage and an injury on the right pelvis. This is highly consistent with being a blade wound from a knife or dagger, which came from behind in an upward movement.
"Detailed three-dimensional reconstruction of the pelvis has indicated that this injury was caused by a thrust through the right buttock, not far from the midline of the body.
"These two wounds are also likely to have been inflicted after armour had been removed from the body. This leads us to speculate that they may also represent post-mortem humiliation injuries inflicted on this individual after death."
Evidence from the genealogical study
Professor Kevin Schürer, the University's Pro-Vice-Chancellor with special responsibility for Research and Enterprise, led a genealogical study to verify the connection between Canadian-born furniture maker Michael Ibsen and Richard III.
They also aimed to find other descendents of the King by exploring both the male and female lines of descent.
The team included David Annal, previously Principal Family History Specialist at the Family Records Centre, The National Archives, and Dr Morris Bierbrier, a Fellow of the Society of Genealogists, specializing in royal lineage.
The team found:
- Confirmation of the maternal link between Anne of York – Richard III's sister – and Michael Ibsen's mother Joy
- Documentary evidence for each 'link' of the chain between Anne of York and Joy Ibsen
- A second maternal descendent – who wishes to remain anonymous – whose DNA has been used to verify the link between the skeleton and Michael Ibsen.
Professor Kevin Schürer said:
"We wanted to try and verify the identity of the skeleton against present DNA. We wanted to both look on the male line of direct descent and the female line of direct descent to match both aspects of the DNA.
"What we have done is to look at the line from Anne of York to Michael Ibsen and accurately checked every link of the chain. This was to ensure that we can give documentary evidence that the daughters and the mothers match up all the way to Joy Ibsen and Michael Ibsen.
"We have been successful in proving that link, and I think that's an important part of the scientific experiment. There is always a risk that you may have a match between 'A' and 'B' - but without having all the links in the chain, the link may be spurious.
"Right from the start of the project, we did not want to rely entirely on the DNA between Michael and the skeleton. We always wanted - for scientific reasons – to triangulate that wherever possible.
"We set about trying to secure a second maternal line, and after several weeks of research we actually did discover this person. The documentary evidence again is there to support this."
Evidence from archaeological dig
Archaeologists from University of Leicester Archaeological Services (ULAS) carried out a dig at the site of the Grey Friars church in Leicester - where Richard III is believed to have been buried – in August.
The team uncovered a fully articulated skeleton, with possible battle injuries and scoliosis of the spine.
The initial archaeological investigation showed:
- The burial is in the choir of the church, as recorded by the chronicler of the time, John Rous
- The grave has apparently been hastily dug and was not quite long enough
- There is no evidence for a coffin, shroud or clothing as might be expected for a high status burial
- The disposition of the arms is unusual, raising the possibility that the hands could have been tied
- The skeletal remains show that the person suffered from severe scoliosis and had died as a result of wounds received in battle
Evidence from radiocarbon dating
The University of Leicester commissioned analysis from the Universities of Oxford and Glasgow who carried out radiocarbon dating analysis of the skeleton to help determine the time period in which the individual would have died.
Radiocarbon dating is also useful for telling us about the individual's diet – which can be an indicator of their social status.
The radiocarbon dating shows:
- The individual had a high protein diet – including significant amounts of seafood – meaning he was likely to be of high status
- The individual died in the second half of the 15th or in the early 16th century – consistent with Richard's death in 1485
Comparison with historical sources
There are a several contemporary accounts which claim to tell us about Richard III's appearance and character - but it can be difficult to know how much their representations were affected by contemporary or later events, including the Tudor ascent.
Fifteenth century scholar John Rous completed his History of England in 1486, which contained some unflattering but not entirely derogatory material about Richard III.
John Rous said:
- Richard was "slight in body and weak in strength" – which corresponds with Dr Jo Appleby's description of the skeleton as "gracile".
- He was buried among the Friars Minor (Franciscans) of Leicester in the choir of the church. This was the part of the church where the Search team discovered the remains.
Similarly, fifteenth-century Silesian nobleman Nicolas von Poppelau - who met and clearly liked Richard III – said Richard was taller and slimmer than himself, not so solid and far leaner with delicate arms and legs.
Professor Lin Foxhall, Head of the University of Leicester's School of Archaeology and Ancient History, said: "Jo's discoveries about the delicate, 'gracile' character of the skeleton and some of its gender-ambivalent characteristics might encourage us now to see these historical descriptions in a new light, and to read these descriptions rather differently than I suspect translators have done in the past.
"In Latin, 'vis', 'strength, vigor', is often a characteristically masculine quality. If we have identified this skeleton as the right individual, Rous's and von Poppolau's accounts could actually have been more acute and precise descriptions of the living person than anyone has realized.
"Our archaeological research does not tell us anything about the character of Richard III, and of course his physical condition and appearance were not a manifestation of his character. Texts also don't always tell us 'the facts' in a straightforward way.
"But, now that we may be able to set these texts against the archaeological finds, we could end up re-writing a little bit of history in a big way."
Other key quotes
"This is an historic and perhaps defining moment in the story of Leicester and I am proud that the University of Leicester has played a pivotal role in the telling of that story. From the outset, the search for Richard III was a thrilling prospect but it has involved many hours of dedicated research by our team that has led to the astonishing finds we have disclosed. The search has caught the imagination of not only the people of Leicester and Leicestershire but beyond and has received global media attention. It is a measure of the power of archaeology to excite public interest and provide a narrative about our heritage."
Richard Buckley, Archaeological lead in the Search for Richard III, University of Leicester
"Archaeology is a team effort. No one person could dig up the whole site. You need people who have expertise in very different things – and each different person with their specialist skill can add to the picture."
Professor Lin Foxhall, Head of the School of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Leicester
"When I first agreed to be the human osteologist for the project I had no idea that we would find remains of such significance. After months of careful analysis, we can now say that the evidence from the bone analysis provides a highly convincing case for the identification of Richard III. It has been hugely interesting to see the case for identification gradually unfold, and especially to see how closely the skeleton that we have found corresponds to contemporary accounts of Richard's appearance."
Dr Jo Appleby, Human Bioarchaeologist, University of Leicester
"This has been a tremendously exciting project to be a part of and it's been a privilege to work as part such a great team. I will never forget the feeling of looking at the first sequencing results and seeing the match; I went utterly still. The study isn't over and there's still more work to be done, but at least the big part is out of the way: the DNA evidence, along with the archaeological evidence, makes an incredibly strong case for these being the remains of Richard III."
Dr Turi King, geneticist, University of Leicester
"I'd realised the skeleton was going to be interesting as soon as Jo found the battle injuries on the skull but was still not seriously considering that it could be Richard III; so it was a bit of a shock when the curve of the spine was found. Then, with a lot of disbelief, there was this dawning realisation that if you had a check list of everything you wanted to see on a skeleton to say it was Richard III, this ticked every box. The enormity of the discovery didn't sink in till much later though. As an archaeologist it is really unusual to be given a chance to looking for someone who you can actually put a name to, who isn't anonymous but is an important historical figure with a tangible story. Sometimes it feels a bit surreal, Indiana Jones-ish even - 'The University of Leicester and the Quest for the Lost King'!"
Mathew Morris, Archaeological Site Director, University of Leicester
"What we have done is to look at the line from Anne of York to Michael Ibsen and accurately checked every link of the chain. We have been very successful in proving that link, and I think that's an important part of the scientific experiment."
Professor Kevin Schürer, Pro-Vice-Chancellor and genealogist, University of Leicester
"It's been very pleasing to have my work vindicated, it's been quite exciting. When you put your ideas forward you don't expect to see them proven to this extent. I'll admit I didn't think there was much chance of finding anything, but when the project was announced I did hope for the best. Now, it's hard to believe the extent to which my prediction has been proved right."
David Baldwin, former University of Leicester History tutor who predicted in 1986 that sometime in the 21st century the remains of Richard III would be found.
"This astonishing announcement is far beyond what anyone expected in their wildest dreams when the search at Grey Friars first began. The University of Leicester Archaeological Services should rightly be very proud that their painstaking work which has enabled these remains to be positively identified as those of King Richard III. There is overwhelming evidence from their research that these are indeed the remains of the last Plantagenet king. The city should be honoured to be home to such a fantastic University, which has put itself and the city at the centre of well-deserved global recognition for this find.
"The discovery of King Richard III's remains, in the heart of Leicester's old town, will undoubtedly be the start of an exciting new chapter for the city."
City Mayor Sir Peter Soulsby
"This has been an extraordinary journey of discovery. We came with a dream and today that dream has been realised. This is an historic moment that will rewrite the history books."
Threshold to the Sacred: The Ark Door of Cairo’s Ben Ezra Synagogue
March 2–May 26, 2013
The Walters Art Museum
600 North Charles Street
Baltimore, MD 21201
This exhibition explores an object of exceptional interest: a decorated and inscribed medieval wood door from a Holy Ark—a special cabinet that holds the Torah scrolls, the sacred Jewish scripture. The Holy Ark (hekhal) is the most sacred place in a synagogue and marks the direction of prayer. Evidence links this wood panel to Egypt’s famous Ben Ezra Synagogue, one of the great historical monuments of Judaism. Associated with the famous philosopher Moses Maimonides (1135–1204), the Ben Ezra Synagogue is the site of the 19th-century discovery of the Cairo Geniza, a treasure trove of documents considered to be the single most important source for understanding daily life around the medieval Mediterranean.
The ark wood door, which dates to as early as the 11th century, has a fascinating story to tell. After being sold at a Florida estate auction house in the 1990s, it was jointly acquired by the Walters Art Museum and Yeshiva University Museum in New York. On the basis of descriptions by visitors to the Ben Ezra Synagogue, it was apparently still in the synagogue as part of the Holy Ark during the 1800s. A Walters curatorial-conservation team was assembled recently to uncover information about the ark door’s history, and we are presenting our initial findings here. Discover with us the fascinating “biography” of the Walters-Yeshiva ark door and the glorious past of the Ben Ezra Synagogue through Geniza documents, photographs, Islamic and Jewish works of art, together with conservation science research.
A version of this exhibition will travel to the Yeshiva University Museum in New York City October 6, 2013–Februrary 10, 2014.